Training Archives - TurnAround Social Sector Coaching

Why There Are Summits

Verne Harnish collects thought leaders twice a year to help businesses and nonprofits who want to grow. Scaling Up philosophy is that to 10X your business, you have to 10X your people. And to 10X your people, you have to 10X yourself. Summits are two days of nonstop quality ideas – like getting a drink from a high-pressure hose. One company brings along a secretary just to take 25 pages of notes to review afterward.

Speakers/ Thought Leaders At Atlanta Summit May 21-22
The Atlanta Summit May 21-22

Scaling Up Summits and Coaching are an investment of time and money with the promise that your nonprofit will get tools to grow.

BUT

There is also a cheap approach to the firehose if you’re not sure. Buy the books now that Summit speakers have written and you’ll be convinced of the value.

Reading is a Cheap Way to Drink at the Firehose

I have started to read a book a week to get ready.

Last week, I read a book from one of the Summit speakers who will be in Atlanta in May. Mariya Yao wrote ‘Applied Artificial Intelligence – A Handbook for Business Leaders.’ It’s an easy read and gets leaders up to speed on using Artificial Intelligence in your nonprofit. (Spoiler Alert – you are already using weak artificial intelligence, so you have started!)

I’ve been scared of Artificial Intelligence because it sounds expensive. It sounds like new software ($$$) and new staff to understand the software ($$$) with me to raise the money ($$$$)

Mariya begins with the cheapest of ideas -what do you want to know? Artificial intelligence starts with the intelligence of leaders! Who knew? I actually brought managers together last Thursday to ask that question. What a great session as people gave different ideas as to why the school is so successful. I made a tool to guide our discussion. Email me if you want to try something with your team and I’ll send a copy.

Join Me in Atlanta, Invest in Future

Join me in Atlanta after you read a book and see what you’ll will get. Invite board members too. We’ll have a late night session Tuesday night to meet and review the day. Text me before you register because there is a nonprofit rate.

Keep reading for scaling!

This weekly club meeting talks about stress that CEOs and Executive Directors feel when employees don’t do the right things at the right times and life gets difficult.  Perfectly happy Directors and Presidents are not eligible for membership. This week, I’m thinking about why employees get the job description and don’t understand the job.

955_5660976Job Description
In a former job, I was also half of the HR department. I wrote job descriptions for every job. Since the job involved children, I carefully added that you have to be able to get down on the floor with kids and lift 70 pounds. The description is great – but has so many details in it that’s its impossible to know what the actual job is. While it’s critical to be able to carry a child in a fire, the day to day work for the appraisal is quite different.  In 10 years, staff had to pick up a 70-pound child one time! How do you protect yourself without hopelessly confusing your new employee?

What is the job description? The job description outlines the legal limits of your authority. If you are the first grade teacher, you cannot pay bills. It’s not in the job description. You don’t have the authority. The job description describes the limits of the job but employees want to know what is the core of the job?

Job Scorecard
There are several systems online to identify simply what the job is about. The job scorecard is what the job is really about. It’s simple enough for employees to understand. It protects them because you write down how you measure success. Many employees try to be successful if they know what you want.

Some employees won’t give their best until they understand what you want. I like a 10 point job scorecard that has 4 sections. I can tell the staff very simply what the job is about and they are not surprised later in feedback and appraisals.

Example: Accountant

  1. Knowledge, Skills, Abilities – 3 measures. For example, an accountant might have
    1. Knowledge – BA Accounting and 40 hours of additional training per year
    2. Skills – 3 years experience in inventory allocations (Knowledge plus practice)
    3. Abilities – interprets our corporate financials to board (baked in knowledge)
  2. Values – 3 measures of values (values have to already be established)
    1. Value is mission-driven staff – measure is staying late to meet the reporting deadline
    2. Value is delighted customers – measure is returning calls and emails in one day
    3. Value is flawless execution – measure is 0 corrections required in the audit.
  3. Visible Results – 2 measures for an Accountant
    1. Reports to the managers by 5th of the month
    2. Public audit without qualification
  4. Key Responsibilities –
    1. 18-month rolling cost budget
    2. Inventory entries with sales, costs of goods sold, raw materials, finished goods, and work in progress.

Isn’t that simple?

Keep the job descriptions because they keep jobs from changing without good reasons. They protect both manager and employee in moments of tension.

Use the job scorecard to do appraisals and help the employee understand how they add value to the company. Your employees will not understand you until they know what you want. Job scorecards help!

The CEO job is challenging. A business coach can help and contact me if your team needs support to go through this process.

 

 

This weekly club meeting talks about stress that CEOs and Executive Directors feel when2_2501249 employees don’t do the right things at the right times and life gets difficult.  Perfectly happy Directors and Presidents are not eligible for membership. This week, I want to deal with the stress of the 18-36 month window.

ReHire
When you first take the CEO job, you have to rehire all of the people who report directly to you. Perhaps you assumed that they are good sheep and will simply change to a new head sheep?

Not so.

Someone who now reports to you isn’t confident and you make them nervous. Someone else wanted the job that you have. Someone else has been cutting corners (with time and attendance, expense account, etc) with the last boss and wonders how to test your tolerance. And so on. You thought it was a greener pasture, but all greener pastures have manure!

Meet with each direct report and help them show their best side to you. Recognize their talents, skills, values and passion. Meet together as a team and give staff an idea of your most important values. My own personal values include:

  • I don’t hire assistants. I hire people smarter than I am who own their part of the company – In your area, take responsibility and authority and bring me solutions as well as problems.
  • Be a continuous learner. I expect to offer more skills to my job one year from now. I expect you to offer more one year from now. I read one book a week. What is your goal?
  • I pay 75 percentile for your position. I think that great managers need to be compensated so they don’t worry about job and home. I pay for professional development. I offer flex time and remote work where possible. I respect your valuable contribution to this company.
  • I only want people in this company that you would enthusiastically rehire. Does anyone need more attention on your team? Does anyone need to transition? Those will be my questions.

Result
The result of the rehiring – people feel respect for who they are and what they have accomplished and they have a clear idea on how to work with you. In most cases, this is a great start.

Review
Research shows that effective CEOs will need a 50% change in leadership team in the 18-36 month range. The management mix requires a team that can be effective under your leadership. In some cases, the reporting managers also see this and create their own retirements and resignations. This is not a sign of poor leadership as long as the revolving door stops within 24 months. It’s what is needed to take the organization to the next level.

The review period is where you set up a job scorecard for each position with the help of the leadership team. The process is necessary but it will point out some managers who are not in the right seat or not a match for the next phase of the company.

Repair
The discernment process is a time where you meet with some direct report about needed changes that may bring about transition. It’s also a time to see if you have followed the Rehire and Review process.

Failure to rehire can cause leadership challenges in the first 12 months.

Failure to retire people that you do not enthusiastically want will cause problems in year 2. According to the Rockefeller Habits Question 1, you need a leadership team that understands each other’s differences, priorities, and styles and a team that is able to engage in constructive debate. And you need team members who function flawlessly so that you are leading instead of repairing problems. Here are 3 Repair Steps.

  1. It is never too late to say to a direct report ‘I apologize for the awkward start to our relationship and I’d like to hear more about your talents and interests as we continue to create the team.’ No one is perfect and you are opening the rehiring question and giving them respect and a chance to join your team.
  2. It is never too late to state your values and apologize if anyone is surprised.
  3. It is never too late to start a repair or termination that you delayed out of fear or misplaced sympathy. I hate to fire people – until they start making me do or fix their work, or until they start to create trouble on the team.

CEOs can let problems slide, but my Personnel Consultant always said, you can’t cure cancer with aspirin.

  • They’ve worked here for 15 years.
    • I respect that but the company is growing and changing and needs staff who empower that change. Can they change? I’ll help.
  • They probably can’t get a parallel job with their training.
    • That is a choice that they made when they decided not to keep learning. It’s tragic, but respect their choice.
  • They have a lot of friends on the staff team.
    • Very likely, but employees protect their own job first. There may be muttering but none of us are as popular at work as we hoped 😊

The CEO job is challenging. A business coach can help and contact me if you need support to go through this process. But with or without support, most Executive Directors inherit leadership teams with issues. The issues can be managed – and the Board was wise enough to hire you to do it.

Rehire, Review, Repair.

 

If you want One Minute TurnArounds by email, please sign up!

GDPR – Your email is collected by an automated system so that the One Minute Manager posts can be sent. You will be invited twice a year to a two hour Scaling Up workshop for CEOs and EDs. Annually, you will be offered an Ebook and asked whether the resources of TurnAround Business Coaching are helpful.

A maximum of 10 companies per year develop a relationship for Business Coaching to turn around their company or scale up past a growth barrier.

I’ve had experience with three effective volunteer organizations – the United Methodist Women, the typical traditional Black Church, and an Indo-Chinese Caucus. Of course, you may know many others.775_6051438

If you want to grow and scale your mission – do you have a chance of success with volunteers?

A lot of us are very familiar with difficult volunteers on committees, co op boards, community boards, and church trustees. Finding volunteer structures which work well is like the bitcoin investments. They look reasonable but most people are finding bitcoin mine (fields)!

What lessons can we see from non-profits that use effective volunteer teams?

  1. They believe in the mission. Women were excluded from mission activity in the Methodist Church so they made their own organization. Literally, thousands of small committees sprang up to meet, hold fundraisers, and spread the vision. After the organization became wildly successful, the men suggested merging the two organizations 😊
  2. They are accountable. I remember three all-stars
    • A woman who started a food bank, expanded to a network and got government funding
    • A woman who was in charge of sound, lighting and media weekly for 5 years and always professional and on time
    • A woman who played as a volunteer in a band and was practiced and professional

Sadly, I did not take their good examples to spread a culture of accountability in the organizations. It is socially awkward and sometimes splits small organizations when families are involved and one member is called to accountability. One family with 5 children wanted a church to provide a part time job to the oldest undisciplined boy. He was called to task after wrecking a riding mower but the family still left the church.

3. They have the skills and interest in the job that they accepted. There was a screening process that ignored politics and chose people who could actually do the job. I remember a chair of a Boys and Girls Club who was enthusiastic about generosity and also raised funds. Contrast that with people who get on the Finance and Stewardship committee because they are nosy

4. They are recognized. The traditional Black church has been very effective with titles and recognition to sincerely thank people who accept the volunteer responsibility.

5. They have a sense of community. The Indo-Chinese caucus had meetings until 2 in the morning and endless other meetings to drive action that affected American Indo-Chinese communities and homelands. No one looked at the clock because there was such power in solidarity.

Most of the websites that I check tell you about effective practice for volunteers. Since you’re reading this, your problem is taking an ineffective structure for volunteers and changing it!

When you start the process, you are going to get pushback from stakeholders who like things the way that they are:

  • Volunteers who took a job for status and self-esteem
  • Volunteers who feel that they have earned an important job because of loyalty
  • Family members who believe the reports of someone who got caught
  • Volunteers who see the money in an organization and look for ways to enrich themselves
  • Pressure groups who see the volunteer as their voice, regardless of other issues
  • Volunteers who are champions of stability in a time of change so they really want to be volunteers at large instead of accountable for a specific task that they have been assigned
  • Volunteers who see this assignment as good for their resume so they are short term and don’t want interference

Getting past these barriers to effective volunteering is a lonely and soul-searing task at times. And volunteering is declining in the USA (Murphy, 2015). So we are getting the volunteer dregs plus the smaller number of qualified people.

I honestly can’t think of a solution that does not involve coaching. The coach offers the leadership team support and clarifies the plan to be effective and successful through volunteer support.

Maybe you’re tempted to give up after this report? Never!  Volunteer effort still remains a powerful resource to scale your nonprofit work! Like everything else, you can’t do something meaningful that doesn’t involve emotions.

The golden nugget – accept some uncomfortable emotions and get a coach to guide the process of the leadership group. Success and a culture of accountability  is the result!

 

If you want One Minute TurnArounds by email, please sign up!

GDPR – Your email is collected by an automated system so that the One Minute Manager posts can be sent. You will be invited twice a year to a two hour Scaling Up workshop for CEOs and EDs. Annually, you will be offered an Ebook and asked whether the resources of TurnAround Business Coaching are helpful.

A maximum of 10 companies per year develop a relationship for Business Coaching to turn around their company or scale up past a growth barrier.

 

Notes

Murphy, N. (2015). 3 Disturbing Facts About Volunteering in AmericaThe Cheat Sheet. Retrieved 11 March 2018, from https://www.cheatsheet.com/business/why-a-drop-in-volunteering-is-bad-for-everyone.html/?a=viewall

President Obama said in a recent interview on Face the Nation that the most critical quality for a good President is to form an effective team because the job is simply too big without great support (7/24/2016). His comment is actually the Key Performance Indicator for anybody who is leading a company.

Your job is to choose wisely, lead the team, and solve team disputes!

It’s critical to know if you have chosen staff wisely. Most companies now spend more on service and administration than manufacturing. The balance sheets of older days focus on hard assets but most of your company is likely to be service and administrative. You need a balance sheet that measures whether your staff are building your company or wrecking it.

The literature on determining the asset value of employees is still emerging. While various models each have their benefits, it’s easy just to set up parameters and starting thinking in this new way.

I will present 12 elements of an Employee Asset Based approach. I follow that with three examples of a new staff hire, a valued older staff member, and a problem staff.

 

Elements of Employee Asset Based Value

  1. Value of Job Ability -Training and certification which leverage effectiveness
  2. Determined DNA – to complete company mission
  3. Continuing Education
  4. Historical Knowledge of Company and Culture
  5. Network
  6. Ability to contribute to team with justice and peace (honesty, harmony)
  7. Willingness to accept accountability
  8. Impact on Profit of Company and Retention of Students
  9. Impact on Critical Number
  10. Is the compensation too high for this position?
  11. Would you enthusiastically rehire this staff member?
  12. Check for liabilities. Does the new staff member destroy value because of poor performance on one of these scales?

 

How would this look in the real life examples of Jim, Elisa, and Beth?

 

Jim – The New Hire

Assume that you pay market rate for Jim who is capable of fulfilling the position description for teacher. That is all expensed as payroll. Assume pay of $40,000 per year. Debit that amount to payroll expense (just as normal)

Review the list of 9 Elements –

  1. Value of Job Ability -Training and certification which leverage effectiveness
    1. Training and certification which leverage effectiveness

Jim has a Masters in Bilingual education and the DOE would pay $52,000 for this. Credit $24,000 to Equity Professional Added Capital and Debit $24,000 to Professional Assets. Since you expect the teacher to stay for 2 years before the DOE discovers the difference, credit a depreciation account for Professional Assets for $1,000 a month (2 year schedule) and debit expense for Professional Expense.

  1. Determined DNA

Add nothing because there is no history to indicate

  1. Continuing Education

Add $6,000 because he will take CLASS Professional Development and depreciate over  two years – his expected tenure

  1. Historical Knowledge of Company and Culture

No addition because there is no knowledge of history and culture

  1. Network

Add nothing because he has no network

  1. Ability to contribute to team with justice and peace (honesty, harmony)

Change nothing because he is not yet part of a team. You need his truthfulness, compassion to others, and willingness to live for company results more than his own. If he steals, lies, cheats clients – these will all reflect badly. If he has a reputation for peace and justice, then it adds value.

  1. Willingness to accept accountability

Change nothing because you do not know about accepting accountability

  1. Impact on Profit of Company and Retention of Students

Add $9,000 in expected future profit because you believe that the presence of a Dual Language UPK teacher will add two seats to the three year old program and 2 retention effect students in After School programs. Add this in the same manner as # 1 and Depreciate over 5 years to account for the final residual effect.

  1. Impact on Critical Number

Add nothing because this will be established by Jim’s performance

  1. Is the compensation too high for this position?

No, subtract nothing as the compensation is correctly established.

  1. Would you enthusiastically rehire this staff member?

Change nothing because you don’t know. This score is the sum total of all the desired attributes fitting into a package that adds value

  1. Check for liabilities. Does the new staff member destroy value because of poor performance on one of these scales?

Change nothing because there is no history to indicate

Summary for Jim:

You hired him at $40,000. He adds $39,000 of value to the balance sheet. That amount will be depreciated over the remaining expected time of employment. The balance sheet should be adjusted in the yearly appraisal with Jim. He should see his value to the company and propose how to increase it. He correctly may feel that his compensation should be adjusted in Year Two.

On the surface, you have made a smart opening choice. The continuing months are critical as they will add or destroy value.

 

Elisa – Hired 10 Years Ago at Age 40

Assume that you pay less than the market rate of $50,000 for Elisa who is capable of fulfilling the position description for Human Resources. Assume pay of $40,000 per year. Debit that amount to payroll expense (just as normal).  The $30,000 remaining is added to Professional Assets and Professional Added Capital and depreciated over 3 years)

Review the list of 9 Elements –

  1. Value of Job Ability -Training and certification which leverage effectiveness

None, so no added asset

  1. Determined DNA

Elisa is totally committed to the mission of the company and stays late and takes work home. She is a model for younger employees. Add $60,000 and depreciate over 3 years.

  1. Continuing Education

You will propose a certificate course online for $5,000 because it will give her more skills and increase her expected date of departure by one year. Add to Professional Assets and depreciate over 3 years.

  1. Historical Knowledge of Company and Culture

Significant knowledge of history and culture. It will take 3 months of compensation to replace. Add $10,000 to Professional Assets and Professional Added Capital and Expense over 3 years.

  1. Network

None, so no added asset. It is carried with Historical knowledge

  1. Ability to contribute to team with justice and peace (honesty, harmony)

Elisa has age and experience and a kindly manner. She works in the background with you to keep the team together and let you know quietly about unresolved issues. It’s worth $30,000.

  1. Willingness to accept accountability

Elisa rarely makes an error. She knows that her value to you is in being correct.  Her determination not to disappoint relaxes you to focus on the leadership job. It raises your effectiveness by $60,000 over 3 years.

  1. Impact on Profit of Company and Retention of Students

Not a consideration since she has little effect in Marketing or Program

  1. Impact on Critical Number

Add nothing

  1. Is the compensation too high for this position?

No, subtract nothing as the compensation is correctly established.

  1. Would you enthusiastically rehire this staff member?

She is highly valued and the overall fit with the team is worth $45,000 over three years

  1. Check for liabilities. Does the new staff member destroy value because of poor performance on one of these scales?

Change nothing

Summary for Elisa:

You hired her at $40,000. She adds $240,000 of value to the balance sheet. That amount will be depreciated over the remaining expected time of employment. The balance sheet should be adjusted in the yearly appraisal with Elisa. She should see his value to the company and propose how to increase it. She correctly may feel that her compensation should be adjusted in Year Two. She may have other proposals because she understands the appraisal and company very well.

You have made a smart choice in Elisa and retained her. Your leadership skills will be tested to retain her but it’s worth the struggle.

 

Beth – Hired 20 Years Ago

Assume that you pay less than the market rate of $40,000 for Beth who is barely capable of fulfilling the position description for Secretary. Assume pay of $28,000 per year for 10 years. Debit that amount to payroll expense (just as normal).  The $120,000 remaining is added to Professional Assets and Professional Added Capital.

Review the list of 9 Elements –

  1. Value of Job Ability -Training and certification which leverage effectiveness

None, so no added asset

  1. Determined DNA

Beth is unfocused. She isn’t determined to accomplish the job because it’s all hazy in her mind. Showing up is her idea of determination. Unless she has a critical errand for her family. Debit $10,000 per year to Professional Added Capital and Credit Professional Assets. Unfortunately, you assume she will work until retirement in 10 years so the total debit and credit is $100,000

  1. Continuing Education

Ha. The last thing that she learned was where a new restaurant opened for lunch

  1. Historical Knowledge of Company and Culture

$1,000 ($12,000 over 10 years). Beth knows how the boiler works when there is a problem

  1. Network

None, so no added asset.

  1. Ability to contribute to team with justice and peace (honesty, harmony)

Beth has disappointed many employees over her career. They see that she gets paid for doing very little. She actually accounts for $100,000 ($10,000 per year) in reduced effort by others because they see that hard effort does not pay.

  1. Willingness to accept accountability

Beth always has a reason that a phone call was lost or mail that wasn’t sent. She costs about $120,000 over 10 years.

  1. Impact on Profit of Company and Retention of Students

Not a consideration since she has little effect in Marketing or Program

  1. Impact on Critical Number

Add nothing

  1. Is the compensation too high for this position?

No

  1. Would you enthusiastically rehire this staff member?

No, She destroys about $5,000 of value annually ($50,000)

  1. Check for liabilities. Does the new staff member destroy value because of poor performance on one of these scales?

See above

Summary for Beth:

You hired her at $28,000. The sum total of credits and debits to the Balance Sheet is a negative $238,000. Debit to Professional Added Capital and Credit to Professional Asset.  That amount will be depreciated over the remaining 10 years of expected time of employment.

You have a choice to make and your leadership skills will be tested to fire her and replace. Beth has one skill and that is to keep this position. She knows a Board member or she scares people or she is older and can’t get another job or she has an alcoholic husband and pays the bills. You can only remember that you’re not her father, mother or banker. You have a responsibility to the company and the people who receive its benefits.

Conclusion

Notice in these three examples (drawn from real life examples) that the real value is added by longer term employees who are effective (+$240,000). The biggest effect is not firing those who are destroying your company (-$238,000). New employees typically add the least (+$39.000)

In this example, you can increase the asset value by $279,000 or $41,000. The non performing staff member will kill your business.

What will you do this week to add Professional Capital to your company?

Notes

Russ, Meir. Management, Valuation, and Risk for Human Capital and Human Assets: Building the Foundation for a Multi-disciplinary, Multi-level Theory. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print

If you want One Minute TurnArounds by email, please sign up!

GDPR – Your email is collected by an automated system so that the One Minute Manager posts can be sent. You will be invited twice a year to a two hour Scaling Up workshop for CEOs and EDs. Annually, you will be offered an Ebook and asked whether the resources of TurnAround Business Coaching are helpful.

A maximum of 10 companies per year develop a relationship for Business Coaching to turn around their company or scale up past a growth barrier.

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We all look at our financials to determine how the company is performing. The problem with your financials is that they were invented in 1494 by Luca Pacioli (improving the Babylonian system of 5000 BC.

Would you not agree that an update is necessary?

The current financial system is oriented towards manufacturing. In 1995, service industry portion of high income economies was 66%. I can guarantee it’s grown since then.

Recording Labor as an Asset

There have been three economies in history – agricultural, industrial, and technological. Current financial accounting is dangerously biased towards an industrial economy that does not record the financial position of high income countries and their companies.

In high income countries, labor can now be divided into 3 parts.

  1. Unskilled labor where technology destroys labor. Dyson has a vacuum that takes pictures of the room and climbs over obstacles. Why do you need the cleaning lady? Technology has even destroyed sex work since people with similar desires can connect with each other voluntarily. While unions and civil service slow the disappearance of this sector, it is marginal.
  2. Skilled labor is the next to disappear. When did you go to the bank and find a teller? Did you check yourself out at Walmart or the grocery store? Self driving vehicles will replace all drivers.
  3. The sweet spot in a technological economy is talent. You cannot replace the creative, heuristic, critical talent. In a perfect world, we would see an explosion of the arts and frontiers of science.

In the current world, you will face a dearth of talent to hire and a million resumes from skilled and unskilled labor every time you post a job.

What to do?

  1. Expense all your skilled and unskilled labor as financial accounting requires.
  2. Conservatively estimate the revenue that each talent based employee adds to the company and the estimated length of service. Add that to long term assets.
  3. It will increase your assets and equity in most cases. If you are in trouble, it adds to your liabilities and shows that you are highly leveraged.

Next Steps

What do you do with assets? You increase their value and extend their useful life.

  1. Invest heavily in talent to increase their value. Add professional development as an asset instead of an expense
  2. Examine your labor pool and invest in Professional development to convert skilled labor into talent and assets
  3. Look for technology that replaces skilled and unskilled labor

Conclusion

We cannot solve the life problems of labor that is not needed. This is where government policy and philosophy steps in to guarantee an economic floor.

For the current moment, you need to add value to labor to turn it into an asset. You will find that employees are so thrilled that most will stay longer than your conservative estimates of an asset allowed. You will win. They will win. Your stakeholders will win. The best kind of scenario.

Meanwhile, your balance sheet reveals a true picture of your expense and assets as an organization. Are you ready for the current economy? Your new balance sheet will tell.

If you want One Minute TurnArounds by email, please sign up!

GDPR – Your email is collected by an automated system so that the One Minute Manager posts can be sent. You will be invited twice a year to a two hour Scaling Up workshop for CEOs and EDs. Annually, you will be offered an Ebook and asked whether the resources of TurnAround Business Coaching are helpful.

A maximum of 10 companies per year develop a relationship for Business Coaching to turn around their company or scale up past a growth barrier.

 

Sources

“Growth in the Service Sector.” (n.d.): n. pag. World Bank. Web. 16 July 2016.

Management, Valuation, and Risk for Human Capital and Human Assets: Building the Foundation for a Multi-Disciplinary, Multi-Level Theory . Palgrave Macmillan. Kindle Edition. Russ, Meir. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Web.